How will you know which donor can help you for a bone marrow transplantation? The first thing you can find out is to identify any close relative can become a donor. Siblings make the best match. Next parents, then blood relatives like paternal and maternal uncle and aunty. To identify the matching doctors will carry out a particular blood test called as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) with the patient and the family members. Another test carried out is the DNA typing in the recent years.

These tests can identify the closeness of cell compatibility. The HLA must match very carefully for a successful engraftment.

Know the Four Different Types of BMT Donors

  1. Optimal HLA Tissue Matching Donors – The histocompatible (HLA) matched relative always your sibling will be the optimal donor. Sometimes a parent or a grandparent can have identical HLA. Every individual will have two sets of chromosomes that contain the HLA genes. One set comes from the father and another from the mother. Out of the eight genes, anyone can match with a sibling and makes it 25 percent possible for donating. If a parent has a matching gene with the child, then both parents would have had the HLA genes in common. All the bone marrow transplant hospitals India will carry out the HLA test for continuing the BMT process.
  2. Partially Matched Donors – The biological parents can match half which means haplocompatible. Possibilities are there for four out of eight HLA to pair with their children as the child has inherited from the parent. The siblings will have 50 percent chance of being haplocompatible with their brother or sister.
  3. Autologous Donors – Patient affected by cancer sometimes can make use of his/her stem cell for transplantation. This is known as an autologous Malignancies including Wilm’s tumor, Sarcomas, Lymphomas, Neuroblastoma, and brain tumors can still make the person eligible for being their donor. The portion of the marrow is preserved from the patient and frozen in the liquid nitrogen. Famous hospitals for bone marrow transplant in India usually protects the stem cell even for months. At the time of transplantation, it is used by giving general anesthesia to the patient. Also, before freezing, the marrow will be treated to remove cancer cells if any present.
  4. Alternative Donors – More than seventy person individual has abnormal cells might not have siblings, and parent bone marrow might not match. Under such circumstances, other alternative donors including unrelated or different types will be used.
    1. Unrelated Donors— Any healthy individual who come forward to donate and if their stems found histocompatible with the patient, then they can give.
    2. Umbilical Cord Blood— There are more than three-dozen UCB registries across the globe were the cord blood is collected and stored from healthy babies.

Therefore, there are various options and donors available. You must approach the best hospital to consult for more details. Alternatively, you may advise the younger generation to preserve their babies stem cell and use that during the time of need. This can help to save many lives.